BRIEF EXPLANATION OF HP 48GX PROGRAMS
OLDSUR contains a set of programs that are the nuts and bolts of
CLOSE is the main stay of the set. From Close you can get the
(1) Area, adjusted Area, missing bearing and distance and
(2) Area, two missing bearings.
(3) Area, two missing distances.
(4) Bowditch adjusted traverse.
There are also extensive editing facilities in OLDSUR. Once CLOSE
has been run, the traverse entered can be edited. The editing
features are tabulated below.
(1) All lines can be reviewed and immediately changed.
(2) Lines can be inserted into the traverse.
(3) Lines can be deleted from the traverse.
(4) After extensive editing the traverse can be recomputed.
(5) When completely happy with the traverse it can be printed
Two programs that are standard on older HP calculators are
included. Namely Polar to Rectangular & Rectangular to Polar.
These programs are called REC & POL. ~hey have an advantage over
the old hard wired functions. ie bearinqs are entered & returned
in degrees minutes and seconds and also in a positive form. eg
350 0 instead of -10 0
There are two other programs in the package.
(1) Change bearings by a constant amount.
(2) Calculate bearing & distance from Co-ords.
This package is mainly concerned with meridian determination by
zenith angles to the Sun. See notes below.
(1) BLIN enables the calculation of Lat. & Long. from a
scaled off bear. & dist. from a BLIN map or an old parish
map, or equivalent.
(2) SUNP is used to input the parameters needed for the Sun
(3) AZZD reduces the actual sun observation.
Note this set of programs generates it's own almanac and is
therefore suitable for determining meridian instantly in the
The two other non meridian programs are VOL and EDMR. ( See
(1) VOL simply calculates the volume between two cross
sections. uses a formula that is more accurate than the
conventional end area method.
(2) EDMR reduces levels using height difference obtained from
SURV contains a large bundle of programs. They all rely upon the
storage and the use of co-ordinates. In the past such a group of
programs would have come under the heading of CO-GO. However SURV
is CO-GO plus more.
Instead of discussing each program separately I will break SURV up
into groups and discuss each group. The groups are listed below.
(1) START. These programs are used for starting a new JOB,
changing to an old JOB, changing the number of points in a
JOB or setting the co-ord values of the current JOB to zero.
(2) BASIC. As the name implies this group consists of the
most used programs. The input type programs generate
coordinated points. eg. TRAVERSE, CO-ORD INPUT, BEARING
B~AR£~G STATION, DISTANCE DISTANCE STATION, DIVIDE LINE and
DIVIDE CURVE. Note extensive use is made of the concept of
direction. Direction can be indicated by either the entry of
a bearing or two station numbers. If two station numbers are
indicated the bearing is taken to be parallel to that line.
The output type of programs display stored information. There
are four different types of JOINS. Co-ords can be displayed.
The area of an enclosed figure can be calculated and
The last two programs in this group are REC & POL. These are
exactly the same as mentioned in OLDSUR.
(3) SPEC This group contains special programs hence the name.
They are either directly or indirectly concerned with
transformations. One program translates, rotates and scales a
set of points. You can shift a block of co-ords from one file
to another. Using ANA you can get the best fit between you
and another Surveyor (for boundary reinstatement). Then you
can follow up and store a reinstatement by using REIN.
(4) FIELD As the name implies this group of programs are used
in the field. Such tasks as setting out batters, traversing,
picking up detail, EDM levelling and setting out profiles are
The largest station number used can be found using LNO,
volumes can be computed using two different methods.
(5) MISC Miscellaneous set of programs. This group of
programs can be broken up into the following sub sets.
(a) Road alignment storage, where the alignment consists
of a series of straights and circular curves. Once
stored you can set out the alignment from traverse
points, or find the chainage and offset of any point
(b) Road alignment storage, where the alignment consists
of a series of straights, transition curves and circular
curves. Once stored you can set out the alignment from
traverse points, or find the chainage and offset of any
point picked up.
(c) AMG calculations. eg. Lat. & Long. from AMG co-ords,
Line scale factor & T-t corrections.
(d) Two vertical curve calculations programs.
(e) Calculate the best fitting circular curve through a
minimum of three points and a maximum of any number of
(6) SETTS This group of programs are used for setting basic
parameters. eg. printer on or of f, Rls on or of f, Original
file on or off. These are all toggle programs.
Included in this group are two toggle programs used for
conversions. Namely acres roods and perches to hectares and
reverse, meters to links and reverse.
WARNING TO NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SURVEYORS.
The software for sale has been produced for use by Australian
Therefore I cannot guarantee that all the programs are applicable
to the Northern Hemisphere.
I will now briefly outline the Australian system. From this
outline you may be able to get an idea as to the applicability of
the software to your situation.
Measuring system. In Australia distances are measured in
meters, angles in the degrees minutes and seconds. Bearings are
reckoned clockwise from zero at North through to 3600. The
quadrant system of recording bearings has not been in use for over
100 years. If you use the Grad system of angles then setting that
system in the calculator will not be enough. There are lots of
conversion from degrees minutes and seconds, to decimal degrees
and also the reverse. The programs could be modified to suit the
Grad system but it would involve major surgery.
The Astro programs have been written so that positive Latitudes
should be input for the Southern Hemisphere. Therefore in the
northern hemisphere, use negative latitudes. I have not tested the
program using Northern Hemisphere data. If you do find some
Northern Hemisphere bugs it should not be hard to eliminate them.
I would only need some test data to find the problem.
The Solar almanac generated uses an algorithm developed by
Professor Bennett of the University of New South Wales. It is
accurate to about +- 2" declination. Just a touch more accurate
than the Star Almanac for Surveyors.
CAM refers to an old meridian system used in Australia. Basically
the difference between true North and Magnetic was determined at
an initial point in a County. This difference called the variation
was then held fixed. All meridians within the county were then
held parallel to this approximate magnetic meridian. This was
called County Arbitrary Meridian. Hence the name CAM.
AMG is a Transverse Mercator system used within Australia We are
in the process of converting over to it, for cadastral Surveying.
This system is based upon our local Geodetic Datum, AGD 84.
Therefore any AMG programs will most likely be inappropriate to
METHOD OF PROGRAM TRANSFER.
There are essentially three methods of transferring the programs.
(1) From HP 48 to HP 48. This is the most efficient
method. However of little use to overseas Surveyors.
(2) Transfer by floppy disc. Certainly viable. But could be
vulnerable on a overseas trip.
(3) Transfer by E-Mail. This would appear to be the best
method for overseas transfer.
You will still need some extra software to enable the transfer
from a IBM compatible computer to the HP 48 and a interface cable.
The program Kermit is free and will do the trick. However it is a
DOS program. You may find difficulty in running it if your
computer is mainly set up for WINDOWS.
CALCWARE is a good windows based program; simple to use and comes
with the necessary interface cable. Should be able to get the lot
for about $100.
This interface software is a good investment. It enable you to
transfer data to and from your computer.
METHOD OF PAYMENT.
There are two methods available.
(1) A bank draft sent by you to me by mail. Add to the quoted
prices $30 for postage. The total amount being in Australian
(2) By Telegraphic Transfer, from your bank to ours. Comments
in (1) about Australian dollars would still apply.
Option 2 seems to be the best. Transfer can be achieved within 48
hours. However we would have to supply you with our bank account
number. For security reasons we are not to keen about this idea.
However there may be ways around this. We are still investigating
this matter. One way or another it can be resolved.
Upon receipt of payment then we will send to you the programs by
E-mail. The manual would have to be posted to you.